Reverse osmosis, also known as hyper-filtration, is the finest filtration known. This process will allow the removal of particles as small as ions from a solution. Reverse osmosis is used to purify water and remove salts and other impurities in order to improve the color, taste or properties of the fluid. It can be used to purify fluids such as ethanol and glycol, which will pass through the reverse osmosis membrane, while rejecting other ions and contaminants from passing. Reverse osmosis uses a membrane that is semi-permeable, allowing the fluid that is being purified to pass through it, while rejecting the contaminants that remain. Reverse osmosis is capable of rejecting bacteria, salts, sugars, proteins, particles, dyes, and other constituents that have a molecular weight of greater than 150-250 daltons. The separation of ions with reverse osmosis is aided by charged particles. This means that dissolved ions that carry a charge, such as salts, are more likely to be rejected by the membrane than those that are not charged, such as organics. The larger the charge and the larger the particle, the more likely it will be "rejected."
Rejection is the term used to describe what a reverse osmosis filter removes from the source water. Pinnacle+ reverse osmosis filters allow for an overall rejection of 99% of all impurities of source water. The following shows some of the impurities removed and the levels at which they are removed:
The Pinnacle+ series offers 100gpd (400L) and 200gpd (800L) units Unlike competitors, Pinnacle+ uses one 100 gallon membrane instead of two 50 gallon membranes (100 gal/day unit only). This reduces cost at replacement time. Includes automatic shut-off valve for easy addition of top off or drinking water systems (standard on Pinnacle RO units; competitors offer this at additional cost) External flow restrictor for easy accessory add-ons Contains one carbon prefilter to ensure long membrane life One 1 micron sediment filter One Deionization cartridge Standard Seachem membrane removes 99% of all impurities including silicates Highest quality components available High impact poly quickfit fittings (John Guest) Pressure gauge (standard on Pinnacle RO units) Modular design for easy accessory add-ons Plastic mounting bracket prevents unsightly rusting Limited one year warranty